Ptolemy is thought to have commissioned Manetho to compose his Aegyptiaca, an account of Egyptian history, perhaps intended to make Egyptian culture intelligible to its new rulers.[16]. Department of Ancient Near Eastern Art. Members of the army, such as the machimoi (low ranking native soldiers) were sometimes recruited as guards for officials, or even to help enforce tax collection. The military expanded and secured these territories while continuing its primary function of protecting Egypt; its main garrisons were in Alexandria, Pelusium in the Delta, and Elephantine in Upper Egypt. Temples remained the focal point of social, economic, and cultural life; the first three reigns of the dynasty were characterized by rigorous temple building, including the completion of projects left over from the previous dynasty; many older or neglected structures were restored or enhanced. The Kingdom finally ended in 30 BC when Cleopatra VII died with the Roman conquest of Egypt. Other scholars operating under Ptolemy's aegis included the mathematician Euclid and the astronomer Aristarchus. [59], As in other Hellenistic states, the Ptolemaic army inherited the doctrines and organization of Macedonia, albeit with some variations over time. The Ptolemaic kingdom in Egypt was founded by Ptolemy I Soter, A prominent general in service of king Alexander's army. During Alexandria's brief literary golden period, c. 280–240 BC, the Library subsidized three poets—Callimachus, Apollonius of Rhodes, and Theocritus—whose work now represents the best of Hellenistic literature. When the Persians took over Egypt, Naucratis remained an important Greek port and the colonist population were used as mercenaries by both the rebel Egyptian princes and the Persian kings, who later gave them land grants, spreading Greek culture into the valley of the Nile. At least from about 230 BC, these land grants were provided to machimoi, lower ranking infantry usually of Egyptian origin, who received smaller lots comparable to traditional land allotments in Egypt. Various diadochi competed for naval supremacy over the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean,[67] and Ptolemy I founded the navy to help defend Egypt and consolidate his control against invading rivals. From the mid third century, Ptolemaic Egypt was the wealthiest and most powerful of Alexander's successor states, and the leading example of Hellenistic civilization. However, the Marble head of a Ptolemaic queen deified Arsinoe II as Hera. Ptolemy's first wife, Arsinoe I, daughter of Lysimachus, was the mother of his legitimate children. MONEY IN PTOLEMAIC EGYPT When Alexander the Great conquered Egypt he introduced coinage into a country whose economy and administration had worked with-out it for millennia. Further outrage followed at the donations of Alexandria ceremony in autumn of 34 BC in which Tarsus, Cyrene, Crete, Cyprus, and Judaea were all to be given as client monarchies to Antony's children by Cleopatra. [24] It was a key academic, literary and scientific centre in antiquity.[25]. According to Ptolemaic Greek Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt. Ptolemy I Soter, (born 367/366 bc, Macedonia—died 283/282, Egypt), Macedonian general of Alexander the Great, who became ruler of Egypt (323–285 bc) and founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty, which reigned longer than any other dynasty established on the soil of the Alexandrian empire and only succumbed to the Romans in 30 bc. Although the backpillar and the goddess's striding pose is distinctively Egyptian, the cornucopia she holds and her hairstyle are both Greek in style. Nevertheless, different nationalities were trained to fight together, and most officers were of Greek or Macedonian origin, which allowed for a degree of cohesion and coordination. 129 votes, 18 comments. During his stay in Egypt, he also founded the legendary city of Alexandriaat the location of the formerly unimportant Egyptian town of Rhakotis. To legitimize their rule and gain recognition from native Egyptians, the Ptolemies adopted the title of pharaoh and had themselves portrayed on public monuments in Egyptian style and dress; otherwise, the monarchy rigorously maintained its Hellenistic character and traditions. [47] The Ptolemaic military initially served a defensive purpose, primarily against competing diadochi claimants and rival Hellenistic states like the Seleucid Empire. Ptolemy XI was succeeded by a son of Ptolemy IX, Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos, nicknamed Auletes, the flute-player. He then may have devoted his retirement to writing a history of the campaigns of Alexander—which unfortunately was lost but was a principal source for the later work of Arrian. The Zeno papyri show that it was the chief port of call on the inland voyage from Memphis to Alexandria, as well as a stopping-place on the land-route from Pelusium to the capital. The Ptolemies drained the marshes of the Faiyum to create a new province of cultivatable land. Arthur MacCartney Shepard, Sea Power in Ancient History: The Story of the Navies of Classic Greece and Rome (Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., 1924), 128. A thesis submitted for the degree of Master of Philosophy. The only Ptolemaic Queens to officially rule on their own were Berenice III and Berenice IV. Thucydides, The History of the Peloponnesian War, 5.34.6-7 & 9. Soldiers served in several units of the royal guard and were mobilized against uprisings and dynastic usurpers, both of which became increasingly common. Egypt had only three main Greek cities—Alexandria, Naucratis, and Ptolemais. After Ptolemy VI's death a series of civil wars and feuds between the members of the Ptolemaic dynasty started and would last for over a century. Serapis was the patron god of Ptolemaic Egypt, combining the Egyptian gods Apis and Osiris with the Greek deities Zeus, Hades, Asklepios, Dionysos, and Helios; he had powers over fertility, the sun, funerary rites, and medicine. Not to be confused with Category:Ptolemy's 3rd African Map, covering maps of Egypt made upon the lines established by Claudius Ptolemy's Geography. Land and Taxes in Ptolemaic Egypt An Edition, Translation and Commentary for the Edfu Land Survey (P. Haun. Ptolemy, son of Lagos took control of Egypt and governed the country until 305 BC, when he was crowned King. It was attached, in the administrative system, to the Saïte nome. [51], By the second and first centuries, increasing warfare and expansion, coupled with reduced Greek immigration, led to increasing reliance on native Egyptians; however, Greeks retained the higher ranks of royal guards, officers, and generals. Saqqara, the city's necropolis, was a leading center of worship of Apis bull, which had become integrated into the national mythos. Strabo, Alexandria had been inhabited during Polybius' lifetime by local Egyptians, foreign mercenaries and the tribe of the Alexandrians, whose origin and customs Polybius identified as Greek. Ptolemaic art was produced during the reign of the Ptolemaic Rulers (304–30 BC), and was concentrated primarily within the bounds of the Ptolemaic Empire. Feeling the kingdom was now secure, Ptolemy shared rule with his son Ptolemy II by Queen Berenice in 285 BC. Their marriage was only nominal, however, and their relationship soon degenerated. Alexander and his Seleucid successors founded many Greek cities all over their dominions. [26] The influence of Greek art was shown in an emphasis on the face that was not previously present in Egyptian art and incorporation of Greek elements into an Egyptian setting: individualistic hairstyles, the oval face, “round [and] deeply set” eyes, and the small, tucked mouth closer to the nose. In 44 BC, Caesar was murdered in Rome by several Senators. At the time when Sir Flinders Petrie wrote the words just quoted[citation needed] the great Temenos was identified with the Hellenion. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. It passed, with the rest of Egypt, into Roman hands in 30 BC, and became the second city of the Roman Empire. There were indeed country towns with names such as Ptolemais, Arsinoe, and Berenice, in which Greek communities existed with a certain social life and there were similar groups of Greeks in many of the old Egyptian towns, but they were not communities with the political forms of a city-state. However, there are many examples of nearly identical sistrums and columns dating all the way to Dynasty 18 in the New Kingdom. [36], In Ptolemaic art, the idealism seen in the art of previous dynasties continues, with some alterations. In 58 BC Auletes was driven out by the Alexandrian mob, but the Romans restored him to power three years later. . These included issues of large coins in all three metals, most notably gold pentadrachm and octadrachm, and silver tetradrachm, decadrachm and pentakaidecadrachm. This inbreeding was intended to stabilize the family; wealth a… In 45 BC, Cleopatra and Caesarion left Alexandria for Rome, where they stayed in a palace built by Caesar in their honor. The Ptolemaic dynasty (Πτολεμαῖοι, Ptolemaioi), sometimes also known as the Lagids or Lagidae (Λαγίδαι, Lagidai, after Lagus, Ptolemy I's father), was a Macedonian Greek royal family, which ruled the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt Nevertheless, the Greeks always remained a privileged minority in Ptolemaic Egypt. Through her offspring, the Ptolemaic line intermarried back into the Roman nobility for centuries. The aforementioned inscription regarding the priests of Mandulis shows that some Nubian leaders at least were paying tribute to the Ptolemaic treasury in this period. Based on an inscription in several of the earliest surviving manuscripts, it is traditionally credited to Agathodaemon of Alexandria . Cleopatra VII, the last of the Ptolemaic line, was often depicted with characteristics of the goddess Isis; she usually had either a small throne as her headdress or the more traditional sun disk between two horns. Culture, education and civic life largely remained Greek throughout the Roman period. Egyptian priests and other religious authorities enjoyed royal patronage and support, more or less retaining their historical privileged status. For example, the faience sistrum inscribed with the name of Ptolemy has some deceptively Greek characteristics, such as the scrolls at the top. Ptolemy Auletes expressed his wish for Cleopatra and her brother Ptolemy XIII to marry and rule jointly in his will, in which the Roman senate was named as executor, giving Rome further control over the Ptolemies and, thereby, the fate of Egypt as a nation. They were partly spread as allotment-holders over the country, forming social groups, in the country towns and villages, side by side with the native population, partly gathered in the three Greek cities, the old Naucratis, founded before 600 BC (in the interval of Egyptian independence after the expulsion of the Assyrians and before the coming of the Persians), and the two new cities, Alexandria by the sea, and Ptolemais in Upper Egypt. Apple green, deep blue, and lavender-blue are the three colors most frequently used during this period, a shift from the characteristic blue of the earlier kingdoms. (Columbia Studies in Classical Tradition, Vol. Ptolemaic Egypt produced extensive series of coinage in gold, silver and bronze. It is based on the description contained in Ptolemy 's book Geography, written c. 150. [66], Like the army, the origins and traditions of the Ptolemaic navy were rooted in the wars following the death of Alexander in 320 BC. Early in 331 BC he was ready to depart, and led his forces away to Phoenicia. [75] Maintaining a fleet of this size would have been costly, and reflected the vast wealth and resources of the kingdom. More than any previous foreign rulers, the Ptolemies retained or co-opted many aspects of the Egyptian social order, using Egyptian religion, traditions, and political structures to increase their own power and wealth. But Mr. Edgar has recently pointed out that the building connected with it was an Egyptian temple, not a Greek building. This custom made Ptolemaic politics confusingly incestuous, and the later Ptolemies were increasingly feeble. [77] Accordingly, naval forces were divided into four fleets: the Alexandrian,[78] Aegean,[79] Red Sea,[80] and Nile River.[81]. His growth and popularity reflected a deliberate policy by the Ptolemaic state, and was characteristic of the dynasty's use of Egyptian religion to legitimize their rule and strengthen their control. The Ptolemy world map is a map of the world known to Hellenistic society in the 2nd century. Philometor's younger brother (later Ptolemy VIII Physcon) was installed as king by the Ptolemaic court in Alexandria. The Ptolemaic Kingdom was diverse and cosmopolitan. He built a large structure of limestone, about 100 metres (330 ft) long and 18 metres (59 ft) wide, to fill up the broken entrance to the great Temenos; he strengthened the great block of chambers in the Temenos, and re-established them. The figures in the scenes are smooth, rounded, and high relief, a style continued throughout the 30th Dynasty. 解説 8vo. The oracle declared him to be the son of Amun. But Physcon soon returned, killed his young nephew, seized the throne and as Ptolemy VIII soon proved himself a cruel tyrant. Alexandria would remain one of the leading cities of the Mediterranean well into the late Middle Ages. [citation needed]. Within a few years he had gained control of Libya, Coele-Syria (including Judea), and Cyprus. Philometor was succeeded by yet another infant, his son Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator. High quality images of maps. According to Plutarch, the Alexandrians believed that Alexander the Great's motivation to build the city was his wish to "found a large and populous Greek city that should bear his name." [15], Ptolemy II was an eager patron of scholarship, funding the expansion of the Library of Alexandria and patronising scientific research. The decree records the military success of Ptolemy IV and Arsinoe III and their benefactions to the Egyptian priestly elite. pp.79-94. Philip seized several islands and places in Caria and Thrace, while the battle of Panium in 200 BC transferred Coele-Syria from Ptolemaic to Seleucid control. Map of Ancient Egypt 2500 BCE Section 3: The Middle Kingdom The First Intermediate Period The last large pyramid of the Old Kingdom was erected for Pepy II, after a 96 year reign (c. 2246-2152 BCE). [57] Kleroi grants could be extensive: a cavalryman could receive at least 70 arouras of land, equal to about 178,920 square metres, and as much as 100 arouras; infantrymen could expect 30 or 25 arouras and machimoi at least five auroras, considered enough for one family. Vines from regions like Crete were planted in Egypt in an attempt to produce Greek wines. Greeks held virtually all the political and economic power, while native Egyptians generally occupied only the lower posts; over time, Egyptians who spoke Greek were able to advance further and many individuals identified as "Greek" were of Egyptian descent. Ptolemy successfully defended Egypt against an invasion by Perdiccas in 321 BC, and consolidated his position in Egypt and the surrounding areas during the Wars of the Diadochi (322–301 BC). During this period, Greek troops under Ptolemy I Soter were given land grants and brought their families encouraging tens of thousands of Greeks to settle the country making themselves the new ruling class. The Library, at that time the largest in the world, contained several hundred thousand volumes and housed and employed scholars and poets. [15] As a result, the Ptolemies established hunting stations and ports as far south as Port Sudan, from where raiding parties containing hundreds of men searched for war elephants. Ptolemy XIII and his advisors fled the palace, turning the Egyptian forces loyal to the throne against Caesar and Cleopatra, who barricaded themselves in the palace complex until Roman reinforcements could arrive to combat the rebellion, known afterward as the battles in Alexandria. Military leadership and the figure of the king and queen were central for ensuring unity and morale among multiethnic troops; at the battle of Raphai, the presence of Ptolemy was reportedly critical in maintaining and boosting the fighting spirit of both Greek and Egyptians soldiers. Antigonus then tried to invade Egypt but Ptolemy held the frontier against him. Like other Ptolemaic decrees, the decree was inscribed in hieroglyphs, Demotic, and Koine Greek. His reign was inaugurated by the murder of his mother, and he was always under the influence of royal favourites, who controlled the government. Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. [92], Hellenistic kingdom in ancient Egypt from 305 to 30 BC, Ptolemaic Egypt circa 235 BC. Alexander conciliated the Egyptians by the respect he showed for their religion, but he appointed Macedonians to virtually all the senior posts in the country, and founded a new Greek city, Alexandria, to be the new capital. Native Egyptians maintained power over local and religious institutions, and only gradually accrued power in the bureaucracy, provided they Hellenized. Of the many foreign groups who had come to settle in Egypt, the Greeks, were the most privileged. Legend and numerous ancient sources claim that she died by way of the venomous bite of an asp, though others state that she used poison, or that Octavian ordered her death himself. [34] For example, Head Attributed to Arsinoe II deified her as an Egyptian goddess. Women are portrayed as more youthful, and men begin to be portrayed in a range from idealistic to realistic. [32] This sistrum appears to be an intermediate hue, which fits with its date at the beginning of the Ptolemaic empire. [24] For the first hundred and fifty years of its existence, the library drew the top Greek scholars from all over the Hellenistic world. The Ptolemaic Kingdom (; Ancient Greek: Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ Basileía) [4] was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.It was ruled by the Ptolemaic dynasty which started with Ptolemy I Soter's accession after the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and which ended with the death of Cleopatra VII and the Roman conquest in 30 BC. 2, Arabs in Antiquity: Their History from the Assyrians to the Umayyads, Prof. Jan Retso, Page: 301, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Ancient Egypt - Macedonian and Ptolemaic Egypt (332–30 bce)", http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/acha/hd_acha.htm, http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/alex/hd_alex.htm, "Bronze statuette of Horus | Egyptian, Ptolemaic | Hellenistic | The Met", "Faience amulet of Mut with double crown | Egyptian, Ptolemaic | Hellenistic | The Met", "Marble head of a Ptolemaic queen | Greek | Hellenistic | The Met", "Statuette of Arsinoe II for her Posthumous Cult | Ptolemaic Period | The Met", "Army and Egyptian Temple Building Under the Ptolemies", "Egyptian Art During the Ptolemaic Period of Egyptian History", The Ptolemies, the Sea and the Nile: Studies in Waterborne Power, Novel Ptolemaic naval power: Arsinoë II, Ptolemy II, and Cleopatra VII’s innovative thalassocracies, "The Nile Police in the Ptolemaic Period", in: K. Buraselis – M. Stefanou – D.J.