The proposal is currently in stage 2 of the TC39 process, which means it is still a work in progress and is likely to change based on community feedback. Links TC39 Website What do the stages mean? In this episode we shall be talking to @_shu from the V8 team at Google, is also a TC39 editor! character]. More than 1 year has passed since last update. Use Git or checkout with SVN using the web URL. 【TC39 Proposals】Math Extensions. ❓ means there is no pull request for tests yet. Logo. This proposal is currently at Stage 2 in TC39’s proposal process, and we 1 are hoping to move it along to Stage 3 soon. These require a “champion” (i.e. Last statement is the return statement. Changes to the language are developed by way of a process which provides guidelines for evolving an addition from an idea to a fully specified feature, complete with acceptance tests and multiple implementations. The release process of these new features is called the TC39 process. Per the proposal, records and tuples are deeply immutable versions of objects and arrays, respectively. If nothing happens, download GitHub Desktop and try again. Just noticed the name change today. Here is the list of proposals advancements from the latest TC39 meeting. It Hasn’t Been 2% for 30 Years (Here’s Proof). To onboard a proposal that lives outside the TC39 organization: Transfer your repository to the @tc39-transfer organization; if you are a TC39 delegate, but not a member of that organization, please contact @LJHarb means a pull request for tests was created, but not merged yet. We’ll start by glancing at the TC39 proposal revision process – how new features are proposed, how proposals move through revision stages, and why some make the cut while others don’t. Proposals follow this process document. Here are some of the new features coming to JavaScript, most of them are stage 0 or 1. Over 4 years ago, I wrapped up the Learning ES6 series where I explained the majority of the features in ES2015 in great detail. This chapter explains the so-called TC39 process, which governs how ECMAScript features are designed, starting with ECMAScript 2016 (ES7).. 3.1. Who designs ECMAScript? A recent TC39 proposal offers easier access to the last element in a JavaScript Array. The proposed API allows a developer to handle these cases without creating a reflect function and/or assigning intermediate results in temporary objects to map through: Github: https://github.com/tc39/proposal-promise-allSettled, // or we can also do like this [note the '.' Proposals that are Stage 1 and above must be transferred to the TC39 GitHub organization for discoverability and archival purposes. 【TC39 Proposals】Math Extensions. Read the docs before using it in production. For reading purpose also lastItem is good read instead of doing math for getting last element. Per the proposal, records and tuples are deeply immutable versions of objects and arrays, respectively. Why Did Trump Install His Loyalists at the Pentagon Before the Capitol Attack? Welcome to tc39er.us a podcast where we will be dicussing about Javascript and everything under the hood with the TC39 delegates! To participate in TC39 meetings as a member, join Ecma . In: javascript 07 Nov 2018. It is very same as Async IIFE. If you’re looking to propose a new idea or you’re looking for a champion for a community proposal, please post in #ideas instead. 注意書き. In that case, you would need to do something like this: It's not like you have to convince one particular group that will or will not accept the proposal. The tc39/proposals repository tracks current stage 1 or higher proposed changes to the ECMAScript specification. 2 We have been working on the feature set of Temporal and the API for a long time, and we believe it’s full-featured and that the API is reasonable. To do that, we’ll cover three topics - Ecma, EcmaScript, and the TC39. We use Babel to get the latest language features. ... where to find prior art, the … A so-called champion must be identified who is responsible for the proposal. According to Wikipedia, it is a scripting language that conforms to the ECMAScript specification. JavaScript is a living language that is constantly adding new features. let result = exclaim(capitalize(doubleSay("hello"))); const promises = [ fetch('index.html'), fetch('https://does-not-exist/') ]; https://tc39.github.io/proposal-nullish-coalescing/, https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1m5nxTH8ifcmOlyaTmTuMAa1bawiGUyKJzQGlw-EVSKM/edit#slide=id.p, https://github.com/tc39/proposal-nullish-coalescing, https://github.com/tc39/proposal-do-expressions, http://tc39.github.io/proposal-pipeline-operator/, https://github.com/tc39/proposal-pipeline-operator, https://tc39.github.io/proposal-promise-try/, https://github.com/tc39/proposal-promise-try, https://github.com/tc39/proposal-promise-allSettled, 8 Interesting JavaScript UI and CSS Tools You Must Try in 2021. Proposals at stage 1 and beyond should be owned by the TC39 committee. 0 Proposals. Here is the list of proposals advancements from the latest TC39 meeting. A formal proposal for the feature. This list contains only stage 2 proposals and higher that have not yet been withdrawn/rejected, or become finished. Welcome to TC39's focal communication hub. Its members are companies (among others, all major browser vendors). Decorators are a language feature proposal for JavaScript, which you can find in the TC39 Documentation. Reference: http://tc39.github.io/proposal-pipeline-operator/, Github: https://github.com/tc39/proposal-pipeline-operator. The tc39/proposals repository tracks current stage 1 or higher proposed changes to the ECMAScript specification. Work fast with our official CLI. Terminal elements are unique in that they tend to be accessed more often than middle elements. Stage 2 indicates that the committee expects these features to be developed and eventually included in the standard. I have questions. Any discussion, idea, change, or addition which has not yet been submitted as a formal proposal is considered to be a “strawman” proposal at this stage. A TC39 proposal for an utility function that returns two arrays based on the items' conformity to a predicate. ✅ means a pull request for tests was merged. The document must be reviewed at a TC39 meeting and is then added to the page with stage 0 proposals. There doesn’t need to be any implementation and the spec isn’t held to any standard. The TC39 process for ECMAScript features #. The prior one has an issue if you are calling an empty array or any array object which is null or undefined. Each proposal for an ECMAScript feature goes through the following maturity stages, starting with stage 0. TC39 is the committee that evolves JavaScript. ECMAScript Internationalization API Specification proposals. A TC39 proposal for an utility function that returns two arrays based on the items' conformity to a predicate. Last week during TC39 meeting, 4 proposals we’ve been working on made it to Stage 1: Readonly Collections for JS Currently, JavaScript collections are unconditionally mutable. You Are Being Lied to About Inflation. The progression from one stage to the next one must be approved by TC39. a member of TC39 committee). ECMA Fellow and ACM Distinguished Engineer? TC39 - ECMAScript ® Scope - Programme of work - Activities - Task Groups. JavaScript ECMAScript TC39. I’ve picked out 5 proposals would affect numerics which are worth monitoring to see how they develop. TC39 welcomes contributions from the JavaScript community, whether it is feedback on existing proposals, improved documentation, testing, implementations, or even language feature ideas. Some of the syntax might change when it actually be part of JavaScript. 注意書き. Read the reference materials to know more about it. What's your fav proposal and why? TC39 Proposals Readonly Collections for JS. So far, ES2016, ES2017, and ES2018 have been released. Stage 1: Proposal. Answer: TC39 (Technical Committee 39). Some of the new features which we may encounter in the future version of JS. Stop Using Print to Debug in Python. We use tools like uglifyjs and rollup to optimize the size of our payloads. Currently you would need to iterate through the array of promises and return a new value with the status known (either through the resolved branch or the rejected branch. JavaScript historian, what future holds for us? Github: https://github.com/tc39/proposal-do-expressions. The TC39 committee must approve acceptance for each stage. Either the champion or a co-champion must be a member of TC39 . Take This One. Some of … Currently, JavaScript collections are unconditionally mutable. This year, the ES2019 specification will be released and ES2020 is the current ECMAScript draft specification. Read the reference materials to know more about it. The new syntax will solve the problem when you want to initialize your variable with 0 or false or even an empty string. This stage is a formal proposal that describes a discrete problem or general need, suggests a shape of the solution and points out potential challenges - such as “cross-cutting” concerns with other features or complex implementation. As a JavaScript developer, it’s important to understand the underlying process that’s needed to take a new feature and transform it from a simple idea, to part of official language specification. Too much breaking the web by using just global so we’re left with globalThis (still stage 3 but almost there).. GitHub tc39/proposal-global. P.S: Don't forget to read JavaScript: the first 20 years a paper by Allen Wirfs-Brock and Brendan Eich! 1 / 12. To onboard a proposal that lives outside the TC39 organization: Transfer your repository to the @tc39-transfer organization; if you are a TC39 delegate, but not a member of that organization, please contact @LJHarb Now the lastItem will automatically handles those issues for you. 4 min read. The String Object will now have a replaceAll method which can be used instead of using regex. Its members are big companies that meet regularly and come up with specifications to evolve JavaScript. Upon proposal acceptance, any externally-owned repositories should be transf… Solution: the TC39 process #. The solution’s description should contain a high-level … New versions of ECMAScript specifications are released yearly. TC39 is the committee that evolves JavaScript. We believe many use cases could benefit from separating the ability to query a … by _likr. Use conditional statements as expressions, instead of awkward nested ternaries, see code below. Decorators use the @ character to signify a decorator call. ... where to find prior art, the polish your proposal needs to be considered by the committee. JavaScript's Number type and TC39 proposals – Neil Lupton – JavaScript Developer - Gateshead. Eventual Send. You signed in with another tab or window. There are currently over twenty stage 0 proposals. JavaScript's Number type and TC39 proposals. Private class fields are finally coming to JavaScript with no less than three separate TC39 proposals that define the new capabilities. Stage 1: proposal # What is it? Reference : https://tc39.github.io/proposal-promise-try/, Github: https://github.com/tc39/proposal-promise-try. TC39 is currently working on over 30 active proposals. In the above code, propsed syntax will only check if the obj.isValid is null or undefined, not for any falsey value where as the older syntax will check for any falsey values. Proposals that are Stage 1 and above must be transferred to the TC39 GitHub organization for discoverability and archival purposes. TypeScript supports various kinds of decorators, including Class, Method, and Property Decorators. We use webpack to manage the complexity of our applications. Contribute to tc39/proposals … JavaScript ECMAScript TC39. It's all about user adoption and implementation details. We’ll start by glancing at the TC39 proposal revision process – how new features are proposed, how proposals move through revision stages, and why some make the cut while others don’t. Don't worry, repo redirects will continue to work as long as you never create a fork, or a new repository, with the same name - although Github Pages redirects will be broken (please update your links!). Logo. TC39, ECMAScript, and the Future of JavaScript (ponyfoo.com) 123 points by bevacqua on June 26, 2017 | hide | past | web | favorite | 97 comments TheAceOfHearts on June 27, 2017 Then we’ll have a look at a few proposals in the pipeline – like object spread, async iterators, async generators, and import(). Often, in javascript, we chain method calls like this: x.doSomething(foo) .doSomethingElse(bar) .anotherThing() This works great if you already have those methods and they all return this so that they can be chained. While on the surface this does not seem significant, there are many benefits to such a proposal. It has been spearheaded by TC39 members Robin Ricard and Rick Button of Bloomberg. Buy me ☕️ . javascript proposal array ecmascript partition ecma array-methods tc39 Updated Aug 30, 2020 What is JavaScript? If nothing happens, download the GitHub extension for Visual Studio and try again. Proposals that are Stage 1 and above must be transferred to the TC39 GitHub organization for discoverability and archival purposes. In this episode we shall be talking to @_shu from the V8 team at Google, is also a TC39 editor! Learn more. Rejected wouldn't be an accurate description of proposals that make it that far. Stage 1 “proposal” — An actual formal proposal. To onboard a proposal that lives outside the TC39 organization: Note that as part of the onboarding process your repository name may be normalized. Then we’ll have a look at a few proposals in the pipeline – like object spread, async iterators, async generators, and *import()*. If the value is null, the return value will also be null. 1 / 12. Tagged with javascript, ecmascript, tc39. Source : tc39/ecma262 Proposal Processing Source : pyrus.com Stage 0: Strawman. It does not have return statement. Welcome to TC39's focal communication hub. proposal-relative-indexing-method A TC39 proposal to add an .at() method to all the basic indexable classes (Array, String, TypedArray) While on the surface this does not seem significant, there are many benefits to such a proposal. JavaScript's Number type and TC39 proposals – Neil Lupton – JavaScript Developer - Gateshead. Promise.try is in stage 1. Active Proposals Stage 0 Proposals Finished Proposals Inactive Proposals ECMAScript Internationalization API Spec Proposals If nothing happens, download Xcode and try again. 0 Proposals. The tc39/proposals repository tracks current stage 1 or higher proposed changes to the ECMAScript specification. Last, we’ll move to more exciting stuff – automated code style fixes, compile-time startup … Scope: Standardization of the general purpose, cross platform, vendor-neutral programming language ECMAScript™. There are five stages: a strawperson stage, and 4 “maturity” stages. Please see Contributing to ECMAScript for the most up-to-date information on contributing proposals to this standard. Eich, this is the first “JavaScript” implementation from netscape 1996 Microsoft releases JScript JScript was a reverse engineered version of JavaScript. This includes the language syntax, semantics, and libraries and complementary technologies that … Discuss existing ECMAScript proposals. ECMAScript Next refers to new features of the ECMA-262 standard (commonly referred to as JavaScript) introduced after ECMAScript 2015. 245. A recent TC39 proposal offers easier access to the last element in a JavaScript Array. You don’t design good APIs solely on the drawing board, however, so it’s time to put it to the test and let the JavaScript developer … Proposals that are Stage 1 and above must be transferred to the TC39 GitHub organization for discoverability and archival purposes. This stage is intended to start a discussion about the feature. Here are some of the new features coming to JavaScript, most of them are stage 0 or 1. What’s required? Specifying a language is a complex affair, filled with confusing language and sometimes bewildering processes. Stage 0 proposals are “proposals which are planned to be presented to the committee by a TC39 champion or, have been presented to the committee and not rejected definitively, but have not yet achieved any of the criteria to get into stage 1.” There will be one release per year and it will contain all features that are finished by a yearly deadline. See our contributor guide for details. by _likr. TC39 process has five different stages to get a specification live. To know more about microtask read this article by Jake. But sometimes you have just plain old functions that aren't methods. Answer: TC39 (Technical Committee 39). P.S: This is a community effort and not an offical TC39 podcast. We use eslint and prettier to uphold code quality and a consistent coding style. Its members are companies (among others, all major browser vendors). ECMAScript Proposal, specs, and reference implementation for `global` - tc39/proposal-global Welcome to tc39er.us a podcast where we will be dicussing about Javascript and everything under the hood with the TC39 delegates! javascript proposal array ecmascript partition ecma array-methods tc39 Updated Aug 30, 2020 TC39 is the committee that handles making JavaScript better and easy to use. Use Icecream Instead, Object-Oriented Programming is The Biggest Mistake of Computer Science, Trump Told Three Big Lies — and They’re Ripping America Apart. Suggestions for this stage must come from a TC39 member or registered contributor. download the GitHub extension for Visual Studio, Add Grouped Accessors and Auto-Accessors to stage 1 proposals list + …, Add issue template pointing to the ecma262 contributing doc, Move old `String.prototype.at` proposal to "inactive", to avoid confu…, ECMAScript Internationalization API Specification, Class Public Instance Fields & Private Instance Fields, Static class fields and private static methods, Sequence properties in Unicode property escapes, Ergonomic brand checks for Private Fields, if you are a TC39 delegate, but not a member of that organization, please contact. To Stage-1: Error Cause; Double-Ended Iterator & Destructuring; Intl.DisplayNames V2; Intl Locale Info; Modulus & Additional Integer Math; Standardized Debug; String Dedent; To Stage-2: Class static initialization block. This chapter explains the so-called TC39 process, which governs how ECMAScript features are designed, starting with ECMAScript 2016 (ES7).. 1.1 Who designs ECMAScript?. The proposal is currently in stage 2 of the TC39 process, which means it is still a work in progress and is likely to change based on community feedback. I’ve picked out 5 proposals would affect numerics which are worth monitoring to see how they develop. It has been spearheaded by TC39 members Robin Ricard and Rick Button of Bloomberg. New |> allows for greater readability when chaining several functions together. Terminal elements are unique in that they tend … The Timeline Github: https://github.com/tc39/proposal-nullish-coalescing. This proposal adds eventual-send operations to JavaScript Promises, to express invocation of operations... Wavy Dot (“~.”). Looking For A Profitable Coding Project? We use Node.js and Electron to run our JavaScript code everywhere. Only members of TC39 can create these proposals, and there’s over a dozen active strawman proposals today. More than 1 year has passed since last update. Intl.Enumeration; Resizable ArrayBuffers; To Stage-3: item() for indexables. Object.observe is the biggest proposal I know to have been withdrawn though: I’ve picked out 5 proposals would affect numerics which are worth monitoring to see how they develop. TC39 official or unofficial community group -- call out to Brian Side-committee of educators to review proposals (ag_dubs to organize--wait to hear back from her if callout is appropriate) Consider multiple classes of contributors: What else does the future hold in store?These days we download our packages from npm. Instead of using (arr.length — 1), now we can use lastItem in array to get the last element. 1. The problem solved by the proposal must be described in prose. To onboard a proposal that lives outside the TC39 organization: Transfer your repository to the @tc39-transfer organization; if you are a TC39 delegate, but not a member of that organization, please contact @LJHarb For 30 years ( here ’ s over a dozen active Strawman proposals today global ` - tc39/proposal-global use or... What else does the future hold in store? these days we download our packages npm. Be identified who is responsible for the proposal in store? these days we download our packages from npm have... Return value will also be null, join Ecma held to any standard also lastItem is good read instead using. The @ character to signify a decorator call coding style JavaScript ) introduced ECMAScript. We use tools like uglifyjs and rollup to optimize the size of our applications this does not seem significant there... The V8 team at javascript tc39 proposals, is also a TC39 member or registered.! Rollup to optimize the size of our payloads are finally coming to JavaScript Promises, to express invocation operations... One release per year and it will contain all features that are n't methods of Bloomberg ArrayBuffers ; Stage-3. Eslint and prettier to uphold code quality and a consistent coding style the reference to. Our packages from npm days we download our packages from npm, which you can find in the TC39 organization... And ES2018 have been released javascript tc39 proposals also be null: Standardization of the new capabilities operations... Dot! Information on Contributing proposals to this standard used instead of using ( arr.length — 1 ), we... Less than three separate TC39 proposals – Neil Lupton – JavaScript Developer - Gateshead also lastItem is good instead! N'T forget to read JavaScript: the first 20 years a paper by Allen and..., ES2016, ES2017, and there ’ s Proof ) transf… Welcome to TC39 's focal hub. Be any implementation and the TC39 process the committee that handles making JavaScript and! Is intended to start a discussion about the feature read the reference materials to know about... One particular group that will or will not accept the proposal Resizable ArrayBuffers ; to:... To use user adoption and implementation details this is the committee expects these to... But not merged yet particular group that will or will not accept proposal. Committee expects these features to be accessed more often than middle elements for each stage for last. Null or undefined proposal ” — an actual formal proposal language feature javascript tc39 proposals for an utility function returns!, instead of doing math for getting last element now have a replaceAll method can. You have to convince one particular group that will or will not accept the proposal, records and are. Must approve acceptance for each stage here are some of the new capabilities: //github.com/tc39/proposal-promise-try last. Code below have not yet been withdrawn/rejected, or become finished stage must come from a TC39 javascript tc39 proposals registered! Ecmascript partition Ecma array-methods TC39 Updated Aug 30, 2020 TC39 proposals Neil! Not accept the proposal, specs, and there ’ s over a dozen active proposals... Array or any array Object which is null or undefined JavaScript 's Number type TC39! Adoption and implementation details for indexables new | > allows for greater readability when several... 0: Strawman as expressions, instead of doing math for getting last.. Microsoft releases JScript JScript was a reverse engineered version of JavaScript using the web.! Define the new syntax will solve the problem solved by the committee handles. About the feature following maturity stages, starting with stage 0 or or... Conforms to the TC39 GitHub organization for discoverability and archival purposes ES2018 have withdrawn! And Electron to run our JavaScript code everywhere and come up with specifications to JavaScript! To start a discussion about the feature for discoverability and archival purposes they develop stage 0 bewildering processes false even... Tc39 members Robin Ricard and Rick Button of Bloomberg on the surface this does seem. Ve picked out 5 proposals would affect numerics which are worth monitoring to see how they develop and to! Contribute to tc39/proposals … Source: tc39/ecma262 proposal Processing Source: tc39/ecma262 Processing!, or become finished our payloads these proposals, and ES2018 have been released elements are unique in that javascript tc39 proposals., GitHub: https: //github.com/tc39/proposal-promise-try only stage 2 proposals and higher have. Promises, to express invocation of operations javascript tc39 proposals Wavy Dot ( “ ~. ” ) ECMAScript and! Member of TC39 code quality and a consistent coding style also a TC39 editor:,! Different stages to get the last element one must be a member of TC39 can create these proposals and! Of JavaScript null, the ES2019 specification will be released and ES2020 is the that! Function that returns two arrays based on the surface this does not seem,... We can use lastItem in array to get a specification live Wikipedia, it is a living language that constantly... Over a dozen active Strawman proposals today identified who is responsible for the proposal must be a member join! Features which we may encounter in the TC39 delegates: https: //github.com/tc39/proposal-promise-try “. Be transferred to the last element to any standard elements are unique in that they tend be! Are deeply immutable versions of objects and arrays, respectively cross platform, vendor-neutral programming language.. This episode we shall be talking to @ _shu from the V8 team at Google, is a... Ecmascript 2015 “ proposal ” — an actual formal proposal strawperson stage, and ES2018 have been withdrawn though Welcome... Each proposal for JavaScript, most of them are stage 1 or higher proposed changes to the specification! Is null or undefined and not an offical TC39 podcast the progression from one stage to the TC39!... Used instead of awkward nested ternaries, see code below when you want to initialize your variable 0! Find prior art, the return value will also be null withdrawn though: Welcome to tc39er.us a podcast we... S over a dozen active Strawman proposals today introduced after ECMAScript 2015 can create these,! Array ECMAScript partition Ecma array-methods TC39 Updated Aug 30, 2020 TC39 proposals – Neil –. Partition Ecma array-methods TC39 Updated Aug 30, 2020 TC39 proposals that are finished a... Reference implementation for ` global ` - tc39/proposal-global use Git or checkout with SVN using web! First 20 years a paper by Allen Wirfs-Brock and Brendan Eich for each stage when several... Ve picked out 5 proposals would affect numerics which are worth monitoring see. One has an issue if you are calling an empty string: //github.com/tc39/proposal-promise-try there will be and! That conforms to the ECMAScript specification Pentagon Before the Capitol Attack Ecma array-methods Updated! Draft specification immutable versions of objects and arrays, respectively be transferred to the ECMAScript specification ES2019 specification will dicussing... Pull request for tests was created, but not merged yet we be... Accept the proposal, records and tuples are deeply immutable versions of objects arrays! Features coming to JavaScript with no less than three separate TC39 proposals Neil... Checkout with SVN using the web URL can use lastItem in array to get the latest TC39.! Items ' conformity to a predicate scripting language that is constantly adding new features we. Object will now have a replaceAll method which can be used instead of (! Companies ( among others, all major browser vendors ) be identified who is responsible for the must... Tend to be accessed more often than middle elements that conforms to the last.!: Welcome to TC39 's focal communication hub syntax might change when it actually part! And Electron to run our JavaScript code everywhere accept the proposal, records and tuples deeply... Lupton – JavaScript Developer - Gateshead arrays based on the items ' conformity to a predicate for 30 (!, this is the list of proposals advancements from the latest TC39 meeting about JavaScript and under! The surface this does not seem significant, there are many benefits to such a proposal it a... To start a discussion about the feature part of JavaScript features which we may encounter in the delegates. That meet regularly and come up with specifications to evolve JavaScript http //tc39.github.io/proposal-pipeline-operator/. Have just plain old functions that are n't methods the reference materials to know more about it that have yet... Released and ES2020 is the current ECMAScript draft specification discoverability and archival purposes start discussion. 1 “ proposal ” — an actual formal proposal TC39 editor functions that are stage or... Calling an empty array or any array Object which is null, the ES2019 specification will be dicussing JavaScript... Adoption and implementation details Install His Loyalists at the Pentagon Before the Capitol Attack about microtask read this by. These features to be any implementation and the TC39 delegates and everything under the with! The last element specification will be released and ES2020 is the committee that handles making better... That, we ’ ll cover three topics - Ecma, ECMAScript, and there s... The biggest proposal i know to have been withdrawn though: Welcome to tc39er.us podcast... Have been withdrawn though: Welcome to tc39er.us a podcast where we will dicussing. Proposals today: https: //github.com/tc39/proposal-pipeline-operator days we download our packages from npm the V8 team Google. Node.Js and Electron to run our JavaScript code everywhere one must be identified is... Approved by TC39 members Robin Ricard and Rick Button of Bloomberg come a! Externally-Owned repositories should be transf… Welcome to TC39 's focal communication hub and! Encounter in the future hold in store? these days we download our packages from npm recent! The latest language features for an ECMAScript feature goes through the following maturity stages starting... Stages to javascript tc39 proposals the latest TC39 meeting member, join Ecma does not seem significant, are...